This is a detection type barrier that can be used to surround an area in a dome, and allows them to monitor said area remotely.
The barrier itself is twofold in nature: first it create a giant, dome-shaped barrier which surrounds a designated area including the sky above it, as well as below the earth. The sphere has several circles which have the kanji for boundary (界), and "barrier" (結界, kekkai) inscribed in them. The barrier is connected to a second, smaller barrier called a Sensing Water Ball (感知水球, Kanchi Suikyū) at its centre, which the technique's user uses to detect entrants into the barrier as well as maintain the size, and the shape of the barrier. When someone passes through the barrier, the sphere ripples at the point of entry. This sphere is made from water, and persons, or chakra is represented as varying-sized blimps.
This barrier is the one which surrounds Konohagakure and is maintained by the village's barrier team. During the Fourth Shinobi World War, Inoichi Yamanaka and Ao erected this barrier which was used by the Allied Shinobi Forces' Sensor Division to monitor the battle from the headquarters and pass information on to the Intelligence Division.